20 Aug

Canadian Health and Care Mall: Pulmonary Cell Populations

Pulmonary involvement by both infectious and non-infectious disorders occurs frequently in the immunosuppressed patient and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The alterations of systemic immune function in these patients may contribute to the high incidence of respiratory infection. It is known, however, that reactions occurring in the lung may function independently from […]

08 Sep

Considerations in Optimizing Radiation Therapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: The opposite view in the discussion over lung toxicity

The opposite view in the discussion over lung toxicity holds that the lung volume receiving 60 to 80% of the tumor target dose relative to the total lung volume results in the morbidity and potential long-term complications of radiotherapy. According to this argument, preserving the maximum lung volume to receive doses <50% of the tumor […]

12 May

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: Conclusion

In this regard, it is reasonable to consider the process of emphysema. As noted above, current concepts suggest that damage of the alveolar structures results in destruction of alveolar walls, and hence, emphysema. Excess of proteases, for example elastase released by neutrophils in excess of antipro-teolytic protective mechanisms such as ar-protease inhibitor, can lead to […]

10 May

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: The British and Dutch Hypotheses

Among the other factors associated with accelerated rate of decline in lung function are two that have been the subject of considerable debate: mucus hyperproduction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (Fig 2). The first of these, mucus hyperproduction, is associated with the “British hypothesis” which suggests that the overproduction of mucus was associated with chronic airways inflammation. […]

08 May

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: Nicotine

It is now recognized that nicotine is an addicting psychoactive drug. It is capable of inducing euphoria, an effect that depends both on the absolute level and the rate of rise in the concentration of nicotine at specific receptors in the brain. It is for this reason that smoking, which delivers large doses of nicotine […]

06 May

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: Observation

This comparison is shown (Fig 1, top right) and demonstrates a steady rate of decline in the continuing smokers. In those who quit, there was an initial improvement in FEV1 followed by a decline at a rate significantly less than that of the continuing smokers and approximating that expected for normal nonsmokers. This substantiates the […]

04 May

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: Risk Factor

In addition to cigarette smoke, occupational exposures, and arprotease inhibitor deficiency, etiologies that have been definitely linked to the development of COPD, a number of other factors are likely associated with development of COPD. These include air pollution, passive smoke exposure, respiratory virus infection, socioeconomic factors, nutrition, alcohol ingestion, age, gender, poorly defined familial factors, […]

02 May

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: Risk Factors for COPD

Whatever the causes for limitation of expiratory airflow, its presence has serious prognostic significance. In this regard, lung function, measured as the FEV1? increases into young adulthood, then decreases. In normal nonsmokers, the rate of decline in FEVX is about 20 mL/yr or about 1 L over a 50-year adult life span. Smokers have a […]

30 Apr

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development: Mechanisms of Airflow Obstruction

The mechanisms by which these various diseases lead to expiratory airflow limitation differ. In asthma, the “classic” mechanism for expiratoiy airflow limitation is smooth muscle contraction with narrowing of the airway lumen. In emphysema, destruction of alveolar walls is associated with loss of lung elastic recoil. As a result, following inspiration, there is less tension […]

28 Apr

COPD: Overview of Definitions, Epidemiology, and Factors Influencing Its Development

Despite considerable effort, the semantics regarding COPD remain confusing. As a whole, COPD is characterized by a single physiologic feature: limitation of expiratory airflow. A number of diseases can lead to this physiologic abnormality. In general, COPD embraces emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. Other conditions that may lead to limitation of expiratory airflow, for example […]

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