Modern statistics shows that almost every tenth pair is infertile. Such pairs can not have children without medical assistance. In old days, in these situations, usually women were blamed, but modern diagnosis methods show that only 40-percent of infertility problem lies in female incompetence. Approximately 45% of infertility cases are caused by disorders of male reproductive function. Another 15% – it is the case of other forms of infertility.
Why is male reproductive function reduced? Unfortunately, cause of most problems with male reproduction are their own mistakes and bad habits. It turns out that often men themselves are depriving themselves of opportunity to have offspring, neglecting healthy way of life and common sense.
Here is the main reasons why men may become infertile. Canadian HealthCare Mall will reveal all the secrets.
Random Sex as the Reason for Reproductive Function Decline
Most cases of male infertility happen because of sexually transmitted diseases of infectious character. Random sex and lack of protection leads to such diseases appearance. Main feature of such infections is ability for a long time to be in and did not manifest itself. The absence of clinical manifestations leads to the fact that man does not go to doctor, and during this time inflammatory process leads to dangerous and even fatal.
On background of inflammatory process caused by sexually transmitted diseases, there may be chronic urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis. In such diseases number and motility of sperm is significantly reduced, which makes it impossible to conceive. In such situations, even medicine is sometimes powerless.
Most often STDs are caused by viruses and bacteria, but they can also cause fungi and parasites. Such diseases may be transmitted in any sexual contact, both heterosexual and homosexual. In addition, you can often get infected from a man who has no clinical symptoms of disease. Gonorrhea, chlamydia and genital herpes can be transmitted from their asymptomatic carriers. Some STDs can be transmitted through saliva and even at household contacts, but very rarely. These are extremely dangerous infections such as HIV and hepatitis B that are transmitted only through sexual contact or through blood. If you come across with such problems you are welcome to command the service of Canadian Health&Care Mall online to order medications to overcome this or that disorder. Continue Reading »
The discipline of epidemiology encompasses the evaluation of screening. Screening was one of those approaches which was a hope for control of lung cancer. However, we have learned that the biology of lung cancer is not with us.
The 3 large US trials have demonstrated conclusively no mortality reduction, either from 4-monthly chest x-ray examinations with sputum cytology, compared to normal care, or sputum cytology used in addition to chest x-rays on a 4-monthly basis. Some doubt still remains on the effectiveness of annual chest x-rays used alone, but at the moment, screening for lung cancer (http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer/) cannot be recommended as public health policy. However, in other presentations, we learned of other applications for screening as an aid to etiologic research and as a means of identifying groups that need to be placed under special surveillance. Sputum cytology was used in this context in British Columbia, and has identified a group of aluminum pot-room workers with increased frequency of dysplasia with a relative risk of about 3.5 restricted to those who had worked for 20 years in the process. We also learned in a poster session how sputum cytology is being used for surveillance of individuals being entered into a trial of chemoprevention, those exposed to asbestos in Tyler, Texas. However, we also had a warning. We were told that regression of abnormalities identified in sputum cytology is not unusual, and we must remember that in other context, cytologic abnormalities, for example in the cervix uteri, have been well demonstrated to come and go.
Cytology has not been fully evaluated as a route to identifying groups on whom one should concentrate for prevention. We must remember that in the clinical trials the sensitivity of sputum cytology in detecting lung cancer was not anything like as great as had been originally hoped.
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Fifty consecutive patients who underwent cytologic examination for abnormal chest radiography or CT scan findings at Tokyo Medical University Hospital from July 2003 to January 2004 were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients included 32 men and 18 women, with an average age of 64 years. The final definitive diagnosis was made by histologic examination, as follows: 38 primary lung cancers (24 adenocarcinomas, 8 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 large cell carcinomas, and 4 small cell carcinomas); 1 metastatic renal cell carcinoma; and 11 benign lesions. All patients with lung cancer were staged according to the latest Union Internationale Centre le Cancer criteria. Cases included 10 tumors in stage IA, 5 in stage IB, 1 in stage IIA, 3 in stage IIB, 10 in stage IIIA, 6 in stage IIIB, and 3 in stage IV (Table 1).
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Chronic bronchitis (CB) is estimated to affect approximately 13 million people in the United States (nearly 5% of the total population). Acute exacerbation of CB (AECB) is a frequent and troublesome occurrence and accounts for significant morbidity and loss of time from work and normal activities. Even the stable symptoms of chronic cough, sputum production, and some degree of dyspnea affect the physical well being and quality of life of patients with CB. AECB increases baseline discomfort, and the frequency of exacerbations can affect declining health status and lung function over the long-term., Prompt diagnosis of the etiology of an AECB followed by specific therapy may decrease the duration of morbidity. Proper, rapid treatment may also improve the overall status of the disease process, which, if left untreated, can lead to declining pulmonary function and disability.
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Previous reports of ST-segment elevation and depression in the same patient have included ST depression during exercise followed by ST elevation in the post-exercise period, ST elevation during spontaneous episodes of chest pain at rest with ST depression during exercise, and variable ST-segment elevation and depression during arm exercise with ST-segment depression during treadmill exercise. We are aware of no other report of ST-segment elevation and depression in the same patient under similar treadmill testing conditions.
Several mechanisms for ST-segment elevation during exercise have been proposed. It is not uncommon in patients with previous myocardial infarction. DeFeyter et al reported exercise-induced ST elevation in 52 percent of such patients, which they attributed to mechanical dysfunction of the left ventricle in the region of the previous infarct. ST-segment elevation with exercise has also been attributed to severe transmural ischemia due to significant coronary artery disease. Dunn et al performed cardiac catheterization in 46 patients with exercise-induced ST elevation in leads Vx and/ or aVL without anterior Q waves and found significant left anterior descending artery disease in 38 (83 percent). Exercise-induced ST-segment elevation due to severe transmural ischemia has been ascribed to predominant coronary spasm. Chaitman et al cite an incidence of ST elevation during exercise in patients with variant angina of 10-30 percent. It has also been suggested that transient thrombosis in a patient with coronary artery disease might cause transient ST elevation. However, in our patient, the clinical history, angiographic findings and variable ST segment response cannot be accounted for by any one of these explanations alone.
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Between 1997 and 2002, 6,077 primary lung cancer patients were identified; 5,759 patients received a new lung cancer diagnosis, and 318 patients had an initial lung cancer diagnosis before 1997. Among the 5,759 new patients, 5,717 patients (99%) gave permission to use their medical records for research. Eighty-nine patients (1.5%) were excluded because they were from outside of North America, leaving 5,628 patients for analysis.
Overall, women who received a lung cancer diagnosis were 2 years younger than men (p < 0.001) [Table 1]. Of the patients with known smoking status, 18% of the women and 7% of the men were never-smokers. Current smokers were the youngest patients at lung cancer diagnosis, and former smokers were the oldest (p < 0.001). Among smokers, women smoked nearly 11 pack-years less than men (mean pack-years, 46 vs 57, respectively; p < 0.001). Former smokers were more likely to have used other tobacco products (19.1%) than never-smokers (7.2%) and current smokers (8.5%; p < 0.001 between former and never-smokers or current smokers).
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Pulmonary involvement by both infectious and non-infectious disorders occurs frequently in the immunosuppressed patient and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The alterations of systemic immune function in these patients may contribute to the high incidence of respiratory infection. It is known, however, that reactions occurring in the lung may function independently from those in the blood in both healthy and diseased states. In addition, specific defects in local pulmonary defense mechanisms have been demonstrated in at least some animal models of immunosuppression. Therefore, study of the inflammatory response in the lower respiratory tract of immunosuppressed patients would increase our understanding of the susceptibility of the lung in this setting.
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The various studies published on the efficacy and toxicity of theophylline have led to a carefully defined range of serum concentrations, between 10 and 20 fjig/ml, where there is an optimal likelihood of maximal safe effect. It is this optimal range for maximal safe effect that has been commonly termed the “therapeutic range. The connotations of this term have sometimes been misinterpreted to suggest that there is no effect from theophylline at serum concentrations under 10 fJtg/ml and no farther potential for antiasthmatic effect at serum concentrations over 20 jig/ml. Even a cursory examination of the literature, however, would argue that this is not so. A measurable effect of theophylline is apparent at lower serum concentrations, and higher serum concentrations almost certainly would provide more effect for some patients.
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Nearly a year ago, we analyzed the cost and payment of long-term ventilator-dependent Medicare patients and concluded that a financial bias against such patients existed in the Diagnostic Related Groups (DRG) system. We analyzed 95 long-term ventilator-dependent Medicare patients, defined as those who received three or more days of continuous ventilator treatment and spent no time in surgical intensive care. Surgical intensive care patients were excluded in the interest of focusing on patients who received ventilator care because of a chronic respiratory problem or respiratory complication of a medical illness, rather than as an aid in recovery from surgery. Payment for the 95 patients was calculated to be $2.2 million below cost, representing an average loss per case of $23,129. Continue Reading »
Although Brincker and Wilbek, in a study performed on 2,544 patients, reported a significant association between neoplastic diseases and sarcoidosis, Romer—after a careful reevaluation of the same population—demonstrated a total lack of significant linkage between the two events. For this reason it has been hypothesized that the appearance of sarcoid manifestations in neoplastic patients could be interpreted as sarcoid-like granulomatous reactions, possibly due to one or more of the following mechanisms: 1) release of tumor antigens or complex products by suffering cancer cells during chemotherapy or radiation treatment, 2) increased susceptibility to the hypothetic agent of sarcoidosis in neoplastic patients due to an immune system imbalance, or 3) nonspecific enhancement of granulomatous reactions elicited by antineoplastic drugs and/or radiation treatment. Continue Reading »